To fulfill the objectives of this study, the following research questions were posed:
• Do particular socio-cultural constraints of the translator affect his/her translation?
• Do particular ideological constraints of the translator affect his/her translation?
1-4. Significance of the study
In recent years professionals from a variety of backgrounds have become interested in discourse issues. Historians, business institutions, lawyers, politicians and…, have used discourse analysis to investigate social problems relating to their work. Van Dijk (1997), who prefers the term Critical Discourse Studies(CDS) for this reason, believed it is a new cross-discipline in virtually all disciplines of the humanities and social sciences that comprises the analysis of the text and talk. Recently, the issue of ideological presence of translator in translations and the effect of ideological translations on the target readership has been discussed a lot Although such influences, revealed through discourse shifts, are sometimes clear and distinguishable, the whole area requires more and more systematic studies since the issue is not always clear-cut.Also ideologies are closely linked to language, because using language is the commonest form of social behavior. This study can provide a broader analytical angle for translation students helping them to recognize texts in connection with all kinds of textual and extra textual constrains such as ideology, power relations, and cultural and historical backgrounds. Indeed, this study was an attempt to emphasize that the underlying ideological filter, most often as an invisible hand, makes every text unbiased or innocent let alone texts having politicized language. Therefore, translators, as any other language users who actively participate in the process of creating meaning, need to be very aware of and conscious about every discursive strategy or choice, ranging from deletion and addition to syntactic and lexical variations, they might adopt during the process of producing the target text on the basis of the source text. The researcher investigated the possible effect of translator’s ideology on the translation. The emphasis on the issue of ideology based on CDA can pave the way for translation trainees and also translation scholars and theorists in the field of translation studies. Moreover, this study can be useful for others who study linguistics or teaching.
1-5. Definition of the key terms
In this study, the terms appearing below have the following meaning:
Critical Discourse Analysis: Discourse analysis which aims to systematically explore often open relationships of causality and determination between (a) discursive practices, even and texts, and (b) wider social and cultural structures, relations and processes; to investigate how such practices, even and texts arise out of and are ideologically shaped by relations of power and struggles over power; and to explore how the opacity of these relationships between discourse and society is itself a factor securing power and hegemony… (Fairclough, 1995, pp.132-133).
Constraint: something which controls what you do by keeping you within particular limits (Bloor, 2007 p. 91).
Discourse: Discourse means symbolic human interaction in its many forms, whether directly through spoken or written language or via gestures, pictures, diagrams, films or music. (Bloor, 2007 p.182).
Discourse Analysis: a method for analyzing language, or rather, “a method for investigating changes in language” (Fairclough, 2006).
Ideology: Basic system of shared social representations that may control more specific group beliefs. (Van Dijk, 1996, p. 7).
Manipulation: the usual forms and formats of ideological discourse, such as emphasizing our good things, and emphasizing their bad things (Van Dijk, 2006).
Power: the transformative capacity of human action…the capacity to intervene in a series of events so as to alter their course (Fairclough, 2003, p.41).
1-6.Limitations and Delimitations
Like other researches, there are limitations to this research. Of course, the examination of some element in a given text in itself cannot guarantee whether or not how much ideology plays a role in translating a text. However, it could be helpful in complementing the analysis of a given text.
Also, the collected sample was also another limitation of the study. Due to the lack of space and time, only some parts of the book were selected to analyze the texts. Analyzing the whole book could bring about more comprehensive results.
Despite the endeavor by the researcher, the translators were not available or did not cooperate in the interviews. Having direct access to the translators, the researcher might have been able to provide a more precise biographical account of the translator. Another limitation that the researcher faced during the corpus collection was that it was very time-consuming to gather the instances from all over the translations. Nevertheless, it is doubted the results would be much different if all parts of the corpus were included. In this thesis, the researcher focused upon just two translations. Further research could be done through comparing multiple translations and more cases. This could also be conducted for other language pairs, since our research just focused on English and Persian languages.
Research in discourse analysis has focused upon the relationship between language and the context it is used in. Discourse has been the focus of different majors from the 1960s and early 1970s. Various disciplines including linguistics, semiotics, psychology, anthropology and sociology have dealt with discourse from different aspects in which the term is has its own definition. In the context of language use, discourse analysis is the analysis of spoken interaction between individuals, groups and sometimes even two or more nations. The specialists in this field are interested in levels beyond the linguistic forms.
Different scholars approach discourse according to the specifications of their field and their view on discourse. In the field of language and translation, the whole story discourse is telling is that translation is not limited merely to the text itself; it goes beyond textual boundaries and enters the realm of macro-analysis. That is to say, if grammar gives us coherent sentences, discourse gives us coherent paragraphs and texts (Solhjou, 1377/1998, p.7), “’Critical’ is used in the special sense of aiming to show up connections which may be hidden from people – such as the connections between language, power, and ideology” (Fairclough, 2001, p.5).
CDA in Fairclough (1989) is defined as an interdisciplinary approach to the study of discourse in which language is viewed as a form of social practice (Fairclough, 1989). The above definition shows that language shaped both by society and society is shaped by the language of its speakers as well (Fairclough & Wodak, 1997). The role played by ideology is that language is constructed within its social context not in isolation and language users have different conceptions about the entities in the world, which is defined by their ideologies. Therefore, there’s a powerful link between the ideologies of individuals and their language (Fairclough, 1989). Supporting this relation of language and ideology, Fairclough (1989) states that language bonds with the social through being the principal domain of ideology and “through being both a site of, and a stake in, struggles for power” (p. 15).
Concerning the fact that the ideological roots are different not
only across various languages and cultures, but also across different users of the same language and culture, it is reasonably evident that there is a need for clarifying the sources of these deviations. Therefore, CDA tries to uncover the hidden aspects of discourse, which play a crucial role in shaping people’s ideologies as well as changing social realities. This is, for sure, a supra-linguistic method beyond the grammatical structure as it deals with the implications (Fairclough, 1989). The CDA approaches include a vast body of fields such as political sciences, social sciences and education. Among the sub-disciplines of CDA, critical linguistics aims to consider the linguistic choices a text producer makes which show a particular ideological stance towards a topic. The application of CDA in translation has enjoyed the scholars’ interests for decades (for example see, Fairclough & Wodak, 1997). Translational studies today are said to be at another turn, i.e. ideological. This is obviously a turn which signifies the growth of trends considering ideological issues within the field. The act of translation is not purely linguistics, because it must consider social and ideological backgrounds of the writer in order to be able to convey a message from the source text to its target equivalent. The aspect of ideology in translation can be explored through analyzing deficiencies and redundancies of the translated texts so as to see whether they are the results of the translator’s ideological point of view or not (Fairclough & Wodak, 1997). The critical inspection of the ideological manipulations in the contents of the ST as well as the ideological orientations displayed in translation can display the intentional or unintentional strategies selected by translators to manipulate the exact message and this will obviously influence the interpretation of the source text. As a matter of fact, the concern in the present study was to show a possible existence of such ideological manipulations and their effects on what the original text had tried to convey.
2-2What is discourse?
The first obstacle and problem of people who newly faced to the field of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is the various definitions of the concept of discourse.
Table 2-1 shows some of the common definitions of discourse in different disciplines and among different scholars.
Table 2-1 Definitions of “Discourse”
Archeology dictionary (as cited in Haase, 2010)
The context, environment, and conditions within which a defined knowledge is produced and made accessible to others.
Philosophy Dictionary (as cited in Haase, 2010)
A continuous stretch of language containing more than one sentence: conversations, narratives, arguments, speeches.
Literary Dictionary (as cited in Haase, 2010)
Any extended use of speech or writing; or a formal exposition or dissertation.
Linguistics (as cited in Haase, 2010)
units of language longer than a single sentence; discourse analysis is the study of cohesion and other relationships between sentences in written or spoken discourse.
Geographical Dictionary (as cited in Haase, 2010)
A specific assembly of categorizations, concepts, and ideas that is produced, reproduced, performed, and transformed in a particular set of practices.
The act of understanding
“talk”, the ways in which people account for their experience
the use of language in speech and writing in order to produce meaning; language that is studied, usually in order to see how the different parts of a text are connected
Brown & Yule (1983)
language in use
Faiclough & Wodak (1997)
language as social practice
all forms of meaningful semiotic human activity
van Dijk (cited in Wodak & Meyer, 2001)
a communicative event
Foucault (cited in van Leeuwen, 2008)
semantic constructions of specific aspects of reality that serve the interests of particular